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FOSTERING POSITIVE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENTS: PHYSICAL AND VIRTUAL use none none integrating tocompose none on none .NET Micro Framework expressing the none for none ir Eros-ridden nature i.e. they are not as mature (ibid.

, p. 275). However, there are also other early socialization factors that may be signi cant here.

In his book Real Boys, Pollack (1998) describes what he has learned after many years of working with boys who have severe emotional and behavioral problems. He explains that at birth, and for several months after, male infants are more emotionally expressive than female infants, but by the time, they reach elementary school, they tend to internalize most of their feelings a pattern that continues throughout their lives. Pollack cites two reasons for this general trend.

The rst is the use of shame in the toughening-up process as it applies to boys. Pollack notes:. Boys are made to feel shame over and over, in the midst of growing up, through what I call society s shame-hardening process. The idea is that a boy needs to be disciplined, toughened up, made to act like a real man, be independent, keep the emotions in check. A boy is told that big boys don t cry; that he shouldn t be a mama s boy.

If these things aren t said directly, these messages dominate in subtle ways in how boys are treated and therefore how boys come to think of themselves. Shame is at the heart of how others behave toward boys on our playing elds, in schoolrooms, summer camps and in our homes. (ibid.

, pp. 11 12). The second rea none for none son, argues Pollack, is the separation of a boy from his mother at an early age and then again in adolescence (coming out from behind his mother s skirt ). Pollack suggests that these separations are responsible for boys suppressing feelings, which surface as physical aggression when they reach puberty. Pollack found that boys deal with their shame by suffering silently and retreating behind the mask of masculinity and by failing to report bullying if it happens to them.

Consequently, it can be dif cult for parents and teachers to gauge what is really going on in young men s heads and whether they might be either the victims of bullies or bullies themselves. Another psychologist supports many of Pollack s observations. In a heartrending book titled Lost Boys, Garbarino (1999) reports on the early life experiences of several young American men, most of whom are on death row for murder.

He explains that neglect and abuse of boys, combined with socialization that requires them to hide their emotions and maintain a tough exterior, can have explosive results. He provides four reasons for male aggression: Boys become hypersensitive to negative social cues. They may interpret nonthreatening glances or looks as threatening: This one looked at me funny yesterday .

. . That one is bothering me .

. . See that guy there I think he s got a blade hidden (p.

81). They also become oblivious to positive social cues. This means that even when people are kind to them, they cannot remember; they remember only negative social cues.

They develop a repertory of aggressive behaviors that are readily available and easily invoked to protect themselves and prove that they are strong. Finally, they conclude that aggression is a successful way of getting what they want, and in the Internet likely provides the. CONFRONTING CYBER-BULLYING tools through none none which to obtain the power they need and the validation they crave in their lives. Given these research ndings and the context behind sexual harassment, whether online or of ine, and the potential for gaining equality that cyberspace provides for girls in some cultures, it is important to consider what the law says about institutional responsibilities to provide discrimination-free environments. Because we know that what takes place in the virtual world of children has signi cant impact on their physical environment, it may be possible to extend some of the human rights principles that have emerged in the jurisprudence to cyberspace as a virtual school environment.

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